Nutritional Supplement by Hydrid Ions acting as Antioxidants and Hydrid Ions and H Atoms as "Energy Currency" for Living Systems
by Prof. Dr. Dr. Randolph Riemschneider
Institute of Biochemistry, Free University (FU) Berlin, Germany
Central Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
We know for a long time already that we can enrich our nutrition by fresh fruit- and vegetable juices. The American nutrition specialist Dr. Norman W. Walker was one the first to point out the therapeutical value of the mentioned juices. Since 1930 he applied this knowledge succesfully to his patients and himself for many years (1), even thouth he could not give a scientifically proven explanation. Dr. Walker reached the age of 116 in good health.
Today we know – 70 years later – that anyone consuming a certain amount of fresh and raw plant or animal food of good quality will automatically obtain a significant quantity of hydrid-ions which are more stable in aqueous solutions than expected. Firstly found and analyzed in the nineties by new physical methods (2). The content of negative hydrid-ions in nutritions is drastically reduced by heating, prolonged exposure to air or storage, by milling ecc. Negative hydrid-ions are antioxidants (=reducing agents, electron donors). They can easily neutralize radicals leaving only water as "ash": Radical scavenger effect of hydrid ions.
Early in the 20th century Professor K. Langmuir, one of the fathers of inorganic chemistry, proved the existence of negative loaded hydrogen-ions and hydrogen atoms in H2-gas at higher temperatures: H2 ® H+ + H- and H2 ® H + H (3)
Already in 1940, the author (4) was discussing the subject with two of his professors during his studies of chemistry in Hamburg. Especially the question of existency and proof on hydrid ions in aqueous systems; of course not then in connection with scavenger effect of hydrid ions.
In July 62 the author (5) held a lecture with the subject "possible protection of cancer by radical scavenger" at the Lion-Club-Berlin, by invitation of the lawyer Ludwig, Prof. Dr. Friedeboldt, General Consulate W. Böttger. The main point being the postulated hydrid ions. The behaviour of hydrid ions in aqueous solutions was subject of a lecture held in October 1962 in Wädenswil (6)
It was only many years later, namely in the 1990s, that the existence of stable hydrid ions in aqueous systems could be proven. There are three methods (2), (7):
H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H1-NMR),
Ion Selective Electrode Potentiometry (ISE), and
Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD).
C.J. Stephanson and co-worker (2) stated: "As significant and substancial as the XRD- and ISE-Analysis are, the NMR-analysis is without a doubt the most definitive proof that the stabile hydrid ion can exist in an aqueous environment, even over an extended time." The ISE methode allows to determine quantitatively hydrid-ions for several weeks under suitable conditions (2).
Often the hydrid ions are so to speak "hidden", loosely bound in structure hydrides or organic compounds like NADH, flavonoides, vitamin C- and vitamine E-complexes. Vitamine E for instance acts as "transport vessel" for hydrid- ions. Hydrid-ions [ H-] respectively H-atoms
[H = H+ + ө ] can be seen as "energy currency" of living systems.
For better understanding the author found the following text very interesting
"The negative hydrogen ion (H--ion) is a powerful, primitive primary antioxydant found in all raw, unprocessed, untreated foods (plant and animal) and in many "wild" unprocessed water supplies (glacial runoff water, high altitude wells and springs, some deep wells, etc). It was the original antioxydant for life forms on earth, and is likely the single most optimal antioxydant for life form.
By the 1990's it became apparent the H-ion is ubiquitous even in life forms on earth, and essential to certain key biochemical reactins related to the citric acid cycle (KREBS-cycle) in living organisms. By the late 1990's, it became obvious that several common antioxydants found in plants and animals (Vit.-E-complex among them) function as an antioxydant by acting as a transport vessel for the H—ion, donating it at the right time within living systems to neutralize any of several species of hydrogen free radicals (oxydizing radicals), also known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurring in tissues or fluids in or around the cells. The binary pair, NAD, NADH, is an excellent example of these facts. NADH is well known as a potential energy carrier in living systems, and to play a key part in the energy currency of most cells of many life forms, including those of humans, while NAD is the low energy combustion product." http://www.rawpaleodiet.org/h-ion-index.html (October 2001):
The above mentioned authors C.J. Stephanson, C.F. Duffy, A.M. Stephanson, and G.P. Flanagan (2) explained: "Since the human body is majority water, the ability to know definitively that a hydrid ion exists and is stable has significant importance to understanding biochemical mechanisms of reactions in the body . Up until recently, the NAD+ to NADH conversion was thought to mechanistically be carried out through the transfer of a hydrogen proton and two separate electrons. The present theories understand the mechanism to be related to a hydride transfer rather than a hydrogen atom(8). Knowing that the hydride ion does exist in the aqueous environment could allow further investigation into the biochemical reaction mechanisms"
Below, some details about the two researchers and theresults of their research that have decisivelyinfluenced the areas under discussion: 1) Prof Dr Patrick Flanagan, USA, nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1964 and 2) Prof Dr Norman W Walker, also USA.
To 1): "Research on water and longevity" was an important field of work for Flanagan, especially "Studying the Hunza water and other therapeutic waters". The waters of the Hunza have blessed the inhabitants of the Hunza mountain valley in Pakistan with a long life, up to 120 years in the best of health.
The water of the Hunza contain no dissolved minerals in ionic form, but rather it is rich in extremely small mineral particles (colloids) and rich in hydride ions, only rarely found in most water. Flanagan describes Hunza water as "structured" (a sort of "liquid crystal"). The surface tension of Hunza water roughly equals that of our body fluids. Flanagan
attempted to produce a "copy" of Hunza water, eg by adding appropriate colloids and seperately produced hydride ions (so-called microcluster colloids as Crystal Energy).
Flanagan also discovered hydride ions in some other therapeutic waters, for example in the water at Lourdes. Negative hydride ions are, as noted above, natural antioxidants that can neutralize free radicals in the body. Today we can speak of a direct link between "ageing processes and damaging influence of free radicals". Too little attention has been paid to the antioxidant "hydride ion" to date: Donating an electron in order to neutralize a free radical. Negative hydride ions are the only oxidizing agents that cannot themself become free radicals. After donating the electron, they abreact to water and in so doing attract oxygen that can more effectively get into the cells.
To 2): Prof Walker (1) reported in great detail on his long years of experience in the works cited. Part of his exposition - above all about the state of knowledge on the subject of "intermediary metabolism" - must, however, be considered outdated. But his basic idea on the therapeutic value of fruit and vegetable juices remains unaffected by this. The important thing is that the more recent research noted above (2) has provided experimental proof. In his papers, Walker published numerous recipes that he tried out on his patients over many years (1).
During his 60 years of work in the fields of nutrition and health he proved that a long life and good health can go hand in hand: Good health is independent of age. Dr Walker's interest in how to lead a healthy life began in London at the turn of the last century. His greatest contribution to dietetics was the discovery in 1930, noted above, of the therapeutic value of fruit and vegetable juices [unfortunately most people today drink canned juices from the factory, that possibly do more harm than good]. Even in old age, Dr Walker said: "I can truthfully say that I am never conscious of my body. Since I grew up, I have never had the feeling of being older, and I can say without reservation that I feel more alive than at the age of 30. I don't think about birthdays, don't celebrate them either. I feel ageless."
(1) Norman W. Walker, "Frische Frucht- und Gemüsesäfte", Goldmann-Verlag, München, 1995; title of the original: "Fresh Vegetable and Fruit Juices", Norwalk Press, Pressot, USA;
"Become Younger", USA, German translation: "Auch Sie können jünger werden", Mosaik bei W. Goldmann-Verlag, München, 1993; "Strahlende Gesundheit", ibid
(2) C.J. Stephanson, G.P. Flanagan, C.Duffy: "Evidence of Stable Hydrides in an Aqueous Environment, using modern Analytical Techniques" J. Amer.Chem.Soc.2001, cited by C.J. Stephanson, A.M. Stephanson und G.P. Flanagan: "An in vitro Cellular Analysis of Radical Scavengings Efficacy of Silica Hydride on Hydroxyl, Superoxyde and Singlet Oxygene, Reactive Oxygen Species., by Photosensitisation", University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; ibid(em) further literature
(3) J.Langmuir, "Flames of Atomic Hydrogen", Ind. Engng Chemistry 19 (6), 667-674, (1927)
(4) R.Riemschneider, H.Remy, H.H. Schlubach
Discussions in 1940 about the "Existence, stabilization, proof and use of negatively charged hydrogen ions"("Existenz, Stabilisierung, Nachweis und Nutzen von negativ geladenen Wasserstoff-Ionen.")
Author’s laboratory manual: Notes of talks on 15 Mar 40 and in May 40 with profs H Remy (Anorganic Chemistry, University of Hamburg) and
H H Schlubach (Organic Chemistry, University of Hamburg).
Raised by the author after a lecture by Prof Remy in Mar 40, the subject of "hydride ions" was – at Prof Remy’s initiative – pursued under Prof Schlubach, the Head of Organic Chemistry, State Institute of Chemistry, University of Hamburg: It was above all the possible use of hydride ions as scavengers of free radicals that made the stabilization and production of hydride ions interesting. Further questions raised in this connection were: 1) can hydride ions actually scavenge free radicals 2) where hydride ions occur naturally 3) where are they to be expected?
"Possible protection against cancer through free-radical scavengers" ("Möglicher Schutz vor Krebs durch Radikalfänger"). Lecture give in LION Club, Berlin, in July 1962 at the invitation of attorney Dr Ludwig (owner of the Sportpalast), Prof Dr F Friedebold (director of the Oskar Helene Heim), Wolfgang Böttger (Consul General of Haiti) all of Berlin.
(6) Riemschneider (Lecturer), E.B. Grabitz
„Theorethical considerations on the behaviour of hydride ions in aqueous solutions: two theories including mechanism and kinetics"("Theoretische Betrachtungen über das Verhalten von negativen H-Ionen in wässrigen Lösungen: 2 Theorien incl Mechanismus und Kinetik") Lecture, held in October 1962, at WIDMER AG; Wädenswil, Switzerland
(7) NMR: R.K. Harris, Hydrides in NMR. View, New York, NY, Longman Scientific and
Technical 198-203 (1994)
ISE: Omega Inc. ISE Technical Reference http://www.omega.com/techref/ph.html
XRD: Siemens D 500 Diffractometer, 2,2kW, Flanagan Technologies, Inc.
Cottonwood, AZ, USA
(8) R.W. Nagorski, J.P. Richard
Mechanistic Imperatives for Enzymatic Catalysis of Intramol. Transfer of a Hydrid Ion, J. Amer. Chem.Soc. 118 (31), 7432 bis 7433 (1996).
For correspondence: Prof. Dr. Dr. R. Riemschneider, D-14001 Berlin, Fach 1164, Germany
 He founded The "Norwalk Laboratory for Nutrition and Research" in New York in 1910.
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